Keywords: mind drain theory, conclusion of brain dran
Many developing countries continually lose a substantial number of high-level educated workers, especially scientists, engineers, academics, and physicians, who decide to move and stay overseas in more formulated countries. As the face of immigration often potrayed in the press and idea by the society is performed by low-skill workers with low wages, nearly all documented immigration is in fact carried out by the high-skilled workers and high-level educated workers. This phenomenon is called human capital flight or even more commonly known how to write a history research paper as brain drain. Mind drain may be the emigration of highly educated and skilled pros searching for higher income and a much better quality lifestyle, among a host of other causes, from the growing countries (Africa, South-East Asia countries, etc) to the made one (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia, etc.). Human brain drain phenomenon is closely related to the agglomeration, a situation in which the population is centralized in the urban location due to the people are looking for a more promising condition. One of the difference between mind drain and agglomeration can be that the agglomeration takes place in only one country, whereas the mind drain is happening all over the world involving many countries.
Several studies indicate that brain drain phenomenon has become a common trend in the producing countries. From the info computed by B.I. Logan from the book "The Reverse Transfer of Technology from Sub-Saharan Africa to america", it is known that between 1974 and 1985 in Africa, typically 12.416 technical and professional personnel each year were admitted to the United States from different contries in Africa. And in line with the World Bank Group, nearly 70.000 of high-level educated personnel in Africa leave their home countries to do the job in industrialized nations. Also, from the research conducted by UNCTAD, it is found out that doctors, ICT expert, engineers and other experts from poor countries continue steadily to move and stay to prosperous countries each year. This exploration is conducted yearly in the 50 countries that are less formulated, among various other 8 countries in Asia, 33 countries in Africa, 8 islands and Haiti. It appears that the mind drain or the individual capital flight from countries in the region continue steadily to rise. In 1990, the brain drain was amounted to 16.5%. And now the number had increased to 21.4%. The number of highest human brain drain is coming from Haiti which has dropped 80% of educated and skilled personnel. From the researches above, we realize that the brain drain phenomenon occurs in many developing countries which phenomenon can be extremely harmful to the relevant countries.
In this essay, an attempt was created to answer the questions in what causes brain drain, what are the impacts of mind drain toward the producing countries, and if the higher level of education really has a confident relation with the tendency people to emigrate. In the next section we will talk about about theoritcal framework linked to the mind drain phenomenon. Third section presents the relation of using the data available with the complexities and impacts of brain drain as a theory of brain drain and prove the positive relation of mind drain phenomenon with level of education. The fourth section as the last section examines the final outcome of the essay.
The Theory of Brain Drain
Brain drain may be the emigration of highly trained or educated workers from a particular country. Brain drain could be classified into three forms. The first web form is "Primary External Human brain Drain", it takes place when high-level educated personnel leave their countries to get and work in the developed countries. The second form called "Secondary External Human brain Drain", it happens when high-level educated personnel keep their countries to and work in the other areas of the developing area. The last form is "Internal Mind Drain" , it is just a condition when high-level educated employees are not employed in the correct field in their own country, or if they move in one sector to some other sector in the country. This essay will analize the complexities and the impacts from the first sort of brain drain, which may be the primary external human brain drain.
There are two areas of why educated and skilled people emigrate to other countries, the reasons can be from countries (living condition, political stability, degree of crime, and opportunities) and individuals (education, family effect, and personal preference).
- Living Condition
Poor condition of house countries sometimes can be a trigger for folks to emigrate. Various developing countries still have insufficient facilities to support the persons, for exampe, having less adequate sanitation system that can be a major cause of disease. Inadequate infrastructure such as for example transportation system may also be grounds of the increasing amount of people who move to developed countries as it could cause serious traffic congestion.
- Political Condition
A stable condition of politic means a predictable political environment. Political instablity encourage workers to leave their house countries to a country which has a condusive state to work or even to run a bussiness. Persons also move to a more stable spot to feel safe and relaxed. If the web host countries have significantly more stable politic, then this condition can be a pull issue from the host countries.
- Level of Crime
Poverty and unemployment are normal problems generally in most developing countries, they can generate crimes. Robbery and theft rife in poor areas can cause huge losses to the society. Failure to overcome the crimes problem contributes to lower investment capital needed in the united states. South Africa is among the exemplory case of a country that has a high level of crime and it drives the people in the country to move to safer countries.
The major reason of why educated workers emigrate is simply because there is more opportunities to achieve an improved life in the host countries. Scarcity of jobs in their home countries inspire them to go and work abroad, as well as the higher income they can get in host countries.
Education plays a big role in encouraging the mind drain phenomenon. Several studies reveal the positive relation between the education attainment of individual and his / her prosperity to emigrate. Individual with higher level of income face wider profit differintials and higher probabilities in the designed countries compared to the people with lower level of education.
- Family Inflluence
The opinion of the relation plays significant influence to produce a decision to stay and work abroad, although it is not the main factor for the mind drainers. moreover, relatives who stay abroad can even be one of the reason behind this brain drain.
- Personal Preference
Sometimes, some employees have an ambition to improve their career abroad or even to explore another countries. So that is why personal choice is one the causes of brain drain.
After analizing the causes of the brain drain phenomenon, we will analize the impacts of mind drain toward the house countries. Brain drain can bring many disadvantages to the home countries. First, mind drain can weaken the employment structure, this can be a major issue that inhibit the sector to move forward, since it will affect the performance of the house countries in term of economical growth. Second, the mind drain phenomenon is certainly a vicious circle of underdevelopment, which gives shortage of educated and skilled workers in residence countries. The educated and competent staff have left from the foundation countries to find an improved opportunites in another countries.Third, the wider gap between
rich and the indegent. Fourth, it will waste the amount of money of the origin countries, because they include spent lots of money to educate the persons to review abroad but rather than going back, the persons work in the host countries. Fifth, the workers who emigrate will be changed by expatriates with the same features. But, they’ll ask for more expensive fees that brings about the inefficiency of the domestic overall economy. Sixth, human brain drain causes an enormous losses to the individual capital. Education is one of the most crucial factor to enhance the human being capital. But as we know earlier, education has great relation with the brain drain phenomenon. It signifies that the higher level of education that the workers achieved, the bigger tendency of the workers to emigrate to more prosperous countries. Next to the disadvantages, brain drain can also bring benefits to force the economic growth of the home countries. Reverse human brain drain happens in China and India, as they have high level of human brain drain concentrarion. The features of the mind drain phenomenon will be the international networking, the decreasing of unemployment level, the improving quality of human resources, the optimization of development capacity in the house countries, and the option of alternate investment resources.
In the 3rd section, we will analyze the relation between the available data with the idea that is mentioned previously above. AMERICA is a favorite place for folks to emigrate. In term of living condition, USA is known for having an extremely sound infratructure. Transportation program was well built as it offers subway (underground rail) to facilitate the citizens if they want to go out. Opportunities to see a better quality lifestyle is easier to be performed for educated people, because the salary of workers in the usa is relatively high in average weighed against other countries. High cash flow is among the reason why persons want to move far away from their origin countries, this is why, in this essay we can look closer at the brain drainers in the United States. The table 1 (appendix) shows about the number of immigrants to the United States based on the educational attainment for determined developing countries. This table considers as all foreign-born individuals who emigrate to the United States. Individuals who emigrated to the United States when they were children, and people who studied and graduated in the usa, or other things that aren’t related with the brain drain may be one of them figure.
We can take a good example to analize the causes of the mind drain to america. In 1990, Phillippines gets the biggest number of immigrants to america in Asia and Pacific with 728.454 of total immigrants, 10.680 from major or much less, 224.700 from secondary, 493.074 from tertiary schoolinf level. This lot of immigrants relates to the increasing of the unemployment price that happened in 1990 as we are able to appear in the chart of the time series unemployment amount in Phillippines in the appendix. Unemployment rate is one of the indicators to show that there is insufficient opportunities in a country. Advanced of unemployment rate can be quite a push factor for individuals to emigrate. Therefore the reason of the lot of immigrants in Phillippines is pertinent with the causes of the brain drain phenomenon mentioned above. Another example is from Mexico which contributed to the best number of immigrants to america back in 1990. Among the reasons is the enactment of Immigration Act (November 29, 1990) which elevated the limits on legal immigration to america. Mexican people has already emigrated to the United States before 1990, both docummented immigration and undocummented one. With the enactment of the Immigration Action, there have been more immigrants from the Mexico. This condition signifies that political state in the host countries also are likely involved in the increasing number of the mind drainers.
Another important fact that we can study from the table 1 is that most how to write an exploratory essay of the immigrants with primary or even less degree of education tend to donate to the mind drain phenomenon in the United States at the least volume. From Asia and Pacific from 2.326.277 of total immigrants, only 95.320 of immigrants are from primary or less schooling level. Africa has the same pattern, from 127.853 of total immigrants, only 2.060 are from lowest level of education. THE UNITED STATES and South America likewise have their lowest level of education as their least contributor to the emigration. From North America, just 436.420 immigrants from total 3.761.084 are from main or fewer schooling level, an in South America, it is only 16.320 from total 616.040. Although the amount of tertiary graduated immigrants is usually smaller compared to the secondary graduated immigrants in North and SOUTH USA, we even now can conclude that as persons attain higher-level of education the inclination to emigrate becomes stronger. People generally will search an increased income to accommodate their living. In this instance, the high-level of educated personnel mostly will get higher income in the established countries. So education can be one of the most important reasons to answer this human brain drain phenomenon.
The high rate of the emigration of high-level educated workers from producing countries to the established countries can inflict an enormous financial losses to the home countries. Although this human brain drain phenomenon also has a confident impacts to both sponsor and residence countries as explained in the 3rd section, but the loss is even bigger.Thus, it is vital to the home countries to find the solution to overcome this problem immediately.
The home countries could lower the power of the push factors that may cause people to move and stay overseas. These factors are the political instability, poor living conditon, and the higher level of crime. Another approach is to improve food security, education, healthcare, infrastructue, and other things that can motivate persons in which to stay those countries. In the last section, we know from the data that the unemployment level encourage human brain drain in Phillipines. Unemployed persons will seek an obtainable opportunities far away. So it is necessary for the government in the Phillippines to improve the career sector to create even more job opportunities, in return the mind drainers in Phillippines will lower. Another conclusion from the prior section is the positive relation between the human brain drain phenomenon with the amount of education. Higher level of schooling finished will lead to the higher tendency for folks to emigrate. It is usually stopped by giving the people an appropriate incentive that’s competitive with another countries which means an upward income adjustments.
Developing countries may possibly also adopt the strategy of India and China to transform brain drain to mind gain which can be very beneficial to the home countirus. For instance, Kerala (town in India) has developed millions of young professionals Â to overseas destinations just like the Gulf or Europe, where they can search for better income. Kerala’s overall economy has benefited considerably from the incomes delivered home by remittances workers. Therefore, to solve this problem, the leaders of the growing countries have to find proactive strategy to maintain the high educated and experienced workers in which to stay the countries. Beside that, the leaders should nurture the nasionalism spirit to the citizens, so they possess a willingness to build up their origin countries. You may already know, the prevention efforts are actually work much better than cure.